Structure And Function Of Tire Components

- Aug 03, 2019-

Tire is a circular elastic rubber product which is assembled on various vehicles or machinery and rolls on the ground. It is usually mounted on the metal rim, which can support the body, cushion the external impact, achieve contact with the road surface and ensure the driving performance of the vehicle. Previous tires mostly consisted of outer tyres, inner tyres and cushion belts. At present, most of the tires on the road are tubeless tyres or vacuum tyres. According to carcass structure, it can be divided into solid tire, skew tire, radial tire, belt skew tire and so on.


The outer tire is composed of the body, buffer layer (or belt layer), tread, sidewall and bead. The section of the external fetus can be divided into several separate areas: the crown area, the shoulder area (tread slope), the flexion area (lateral area), the reinforcing area and the bead area. Maternal body: also known as fetal body. Usually refers to the force structure of a pneumatic tire composed of one or more layers of cord (with strength, flexibility and elasticity) and bead.




* Cord Layer: It is a cloth layer consisting of side-by-side hanging cord in the carcass. It is the stress skeleton layer of the tire to ensure the necessary strength and dimensional stability of the tire. * Ring: The part of a tire mounted on the rim, which consists of the core of the bead, the edge of the cord layer and the bead wrap. It can withstand the tension caused by internal pressure and overcome the transverse force acting on the tire during turning, so that the outer tire does not come out of the rim. Therefore, it must have a high strength, the structure should be compact and strong, not easy to deform.


The carcass needs sufficient strength and elasticity to withstand strong vibration and impact, and to withstand multiple deformations caused by radial, lateral and circumferential forces acting on the tire during driving. The carcass consists of one or more layers of hanging rubber cord, which can make the carcass and the whole tire have the necessary strength.


(2) Buffer layer (or belt layer): the plywood layer or plywood layer between the tread and the carcass of bias tire does not extend to the intermediate material layer of the bead. It is used to cushion the external impact force, protect the matrix and enhance the adhesion between tread and cord layer. Buffer layer of radial tire is generally called belt layer because of its different functions. Under the tread base of radial tire, the material layer of the carcass is tightened in the circumferential direction of the center line of the crown.


(3) tread: the rubber layer which contacts the road surface at the outermost part of the tyre (generally, the rubber of the outermost part of the crown and shoulder of the tyre: the edge part of both sides of the crown, the side of the tyre and the reinforcement area are collectively referred to as tread rubber).


The tread is used to prevent the carcass from mechanical damage and early wear, transfer traction and braking force of the car to the road surface, increase the grip force between the tire and the road surface (soil), and absorb the vibration of the tire in operation.


The part of the tread that the tire is in direct contact with the road surface during normal driving is called the driving surface. The surface of driving surface is composed of patterned blocks with different shapes and patterned grooves. The protruding part is patterned blocks. The surface of patterned blocks can increase the grip force of tyres and pavement (soil) and ensure the necessary anti-sideslip force of vehicles. The lower layer of the pattern groove is called the tread base, which is used to cushion shock and shock.


Tire side: It is the outer layer of tire side cord, which is used to protect the carcass and has elasticity.


Bead: It is the part of the tire installed on the rim, which is composed of bead core and bead wrapping cloth, and plays the role of fixing the tire. The tire specifications are expressed in terms of outer diameter D, inner diameter of bead or rim diameter d, cross-section width B and flat ratio (high cross-section H/cross-section width B) in inches (1 in = 2.54 cm). * Heel: The part on the outer side of the bead that fits the corners of the rim bead seat. * Ring Core: The part of the bead made of steel, triangular tape and bead core wrapped cloth. * Ring: Rigid ring made of copper-plated steel wire is the main component of fixing tire to rim. * Assembly Line: Single or multi-ring rubber edges moulded at the junction of tire side and bead are usually used to indicate the correct alignment of tires on the rim.